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Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

  • 1.  Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-03-2019 10:54
    Almost all ChE projects start with a good material and energy balance.  

    A material and energy balance around planet earth would be extremely complex.  Also, it's a moving target as conditions are changing constantly.  Some examples:

       a.  radiation from the sun;
       b.  changing human activities and technologies;
       c.  geological, atmospheric, and oceanic conditions plus a plethora of chemical reactions.

    That might be why it's never been done.  The internet shows some energy balances around the earth and a few material balances.  The two must be combined to get the true picture and enable development of something useful.  

    It might be time for someone to take on this monumental task and who better than a global collaboration of chemical engineers and scientists?  

    The good news is the technology exists.  The information / data is out there and it's constantly improving.  Computers can handle the problem of the changing system dynamics.  

    There's a better way to do it.  Go find it.        
    -- Thomas Edison









  • 2.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-03-2019 16:37
    Hi, William.  I wanted to chime in with IPCC's 2013 energy budget summary.  I attached a snip of figure 2.11 on page 181 of the IPCC's 2013 Physical Science Basis report.  This shows the incoming and outgoing energy along with uncertainty for each major category.



    Section 3 of Chapter 2 in that report summarizes the changes in the radiation budget between the previous version of the physical science basis report and the 2013 report and Chapter 8 is the chapter on anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing.  Box TFE.4 is about the changing energy budget of the global climate system.

    The report can be found here:  https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_all_final.pdf

    Chemical engineers have made and are making many important contributions to climate science. It would be great to see even more chemical engineers involved.

    ------------------------------
    -Kirsten (Virtual Local Section Chair)

    Kirsten Rosselot
    Process Profiles
    Calabasas, CA United States
    ------------------------------



  • 3.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-04-2019 14:59
    No material balance is required. The earth is a closed system. The gain or loss of mass is negligible.

    Energy balances have been done and are actually simple.

    Energy absorbed from the sun: 122,400 TW (terawatts)

    Energy released from energy production: 20 TW

    Geothermal energy: 50 TW

    Energy earth radiates energy into space: 122,170 TW

    Energy imbalance: 300 TW

    Weather events have no impact on the energy balance. The energy that powers these is included in solar radiation. Geothermal, energy production, chemical reaction, etc are too small and are usually ignored.

    NASA has an unfunded project to continually monitor earth's energy balance. You can read about it here.

    ------------------------------
    John Braccili
    Wallingford, PA
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  • 4.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-06-2019 14:45
    Thanks, John.  Good catch.  I guess the material balance in question is CO2 within the great vessel of the earth.

    That is, the various CO2 emissions going into the atmosphere versus the minus side, CO2 depletion from various reactions and absorption within the vessel.  The latter is not keeping up, hence the 400+ ppm CO2 atmospheric concentration (and growing).

    Trees are the major asset on the minus side, but I worry about what's going into the ocean.

    -- Bill

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    William Stuble PE
    Design20FIRST
    Cora WY
    ------------------------------



  • 5.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-06-2019 22:01
    Hi, Bill.  Here is an image of a simplified carbon cycle balance taken from the IPCC 2013 Physical Science Basis report.
    simplified carbon cycle
    The report this was taken from can be found here:  The report can be found here: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_all_final.pdf

    ------------------------------
    -Kirsten (Virtual Local Section Chair)

    Kirsten Rosselot
    Process Profiles
    Calabasas, CA United States
    ------------------------------



  • 6.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-07-2019 14:45
    This is great.  Now we're "sticking to our knitting"!

    Thanks Kirsten.


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    William Stuble PE
    Design20FIRST
    Cora WY
    ------------------------------



  • 7.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    25 Year AIChE Fellow
    Posted 08-17-2019 19:12

    Climate Change – The Tip of a Melting Iceberg?

    (Elisabeth M. Drake – November 2018)

    While scientists study climate change trends and issue warnings about our future, I still hear many people say they are confident our grandchildren will be smart and able enough to deal with future problems when they occur.   Then there also are many who are very concerned and who advocate strong governmental interventions to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions.   But many of these activists live in big houses, enjoy heating and air-conditioning, have all sorts of fancy appliances and cars, travel extensively, and eat lavish meals.  Meanwhile, large populations of refugees are interned in refugee camps where the standard of living barely sustains life. The affluent have environmental footprints that are 4-100 times greater than could be maintained sustainably by Planet Earth.  (Go online and take an "environmental footprint" evaluation if you are curious about your own footprint.)  So, what is the underlying truth?  Could it be that we humans are outgrowing our finite planet?

    Back in 1798, Malthus noted that human population was growing exponentially, but that food production was only increasing linearly, with time. He warned that Earth's population might soon grow to a point where its food productivity would be insufficient to feed everyone.  In hindsight, agricultural advances have allowed us to keep up with population growth so far, proving the timing of Malthus' prediction was not correct.

    In 1968, Hardin published a paper entitled "The Tragedy of the Commons" – which analyzed the hypothetical example of a town that established a "common" for grazing local inhabitants' cattle.  Initially, a growing and thriving herd of animals developed.  But as the herd continued to grow, the common area became insufficient to sustain all the animals and finally could no longer produce any grass due to overgrazing.  Hardin noted that the productivity of the common would peak just before its total and sudden collapse occurred.  Some wondered whether the fate of Hardin's "common" might ever happen on a larger scale on Planet Earth.

    Around this time, a group of prominent executives in Italy (who met socially as "The Club of Rome") got interested in whether there might be eventual limits on economic growth.  They commissioned a study by the Decision Analysis group at MIT (with additional funding from the Volkswagen Foundation) to explore whether then-present growth trends in world population, industrialization, food production, pollution, and resource depletion would likely reach some planetary limits within the next century.  The work, directed by Prof. Jay Forrester, was published as "The Limits to Growth" (Meadows, et al, 1972).  Multiple scenarios were included in the model and the most probable scenarios showed sudden declines in industrial capacity and population occurring within the next (now current) century.  Although climate change was not yet on the radar, it was buried in the model as part of industrial pollution.  The model was criticized widely at the time, although current trends seem to be consistent with its range of predictions.

    In the following decades, effects of climate change were becoming more apparent and scientists gained much more understanding of the impacts of warming on our planet.  Most ordinary people now can notice gradual warming trends in local climate, along with sea level rise and an increasing intensity of storms/ more extreme weather conditions.  Farmers have been able to adapt to these gradual changes so far, although the warming is evident.  It seems that we still are able to adapt without major national trauma, although some localities occasionally suffer unusual damages.  Most of us now accept that greenhouse gas emissions, mostly from fossil fuel usage in power generation and transportation, are the culprits.

    Universities and governmental agencies worldwide started to take climate change seriously and explore technical and societal options for mitigating present and future problems.   In 2009, the US National Research Council published a series of Report on "America's Energy Future."    Major findings included the need for:

    • Accelerated development of new technologies that would reduce GHG emissions
    • Rapid deployment of more energy-efficient technologies (and associated regulatory policies)
    • Development of renewable energy technologies, carbon capture and sequestration technology for use with fossil fuel waste streams, and improved nuclear power technologies

    Capturing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel power plants to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions would require a major national investment and increase the cost of electricity.   We can use less energy if we increase the efficiency of its use.  Replacement of fossil fuels with dispersed renewable energy is daunting – and many are still nervous about widespread use of nuclear energy.

    The root of the problem is apparent when we look at a simple equation popularized by Chemical Engineering Prof. Kaya of the University of Tokyo in 1991:

    [CO2 emissions] =  Population  x  [GDP/population]   x   [Energy/GDP]   x  [CO2/Energy] - sequestration

     [GDP/population]  = standard of living

     [Energy/GDP]   =  energy efficiency

     [CO2/Energy]   =  carbon intensity

    Sequestration =  COthat is captured from emission streams and stored underground or converted to a durable non-gaseous product

    Because we are so dependent on fossil fuels, the driver of emissions is GDP – economic growth! 

    Rich or poor, aren't we happy to have children and grandchildren?  We love to find better paying jobs, so we can enjoy a more affluent lifestyle.  Older folks are happy when their investment portfolios show growth in assets.  We vote for politicians who foster economic growth.  The Table below shows that from 1850 to the present world population increased by a factor of about 6; world GDP, by a factor of about 50; and GHG emissions by a factor of about 160!

    Year

    World Population

    (Billions)

    World GDP

    (trillion $ 2017)

    GHG emissions

    Billion tons/yr

    1850

    1.2

    1.6

    0.2

    1900

    1.6

    3.4

    2.0

    1950

    2.5

    9.3

    6.0

    2000

    6.1

    33.6

    24.7

    2016

    7.63

    76

    32.0

    Ratio 2016/1850

    6.4

    47.5

    160

     

    The above table shows the effects of technology changes on GHG emissions around 1900 when fossil fuels were introduced more widely for electricity distribution, for industrial use, and for transportation.

    Since the end of the twentieth century, international steps have been taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  Today, the good news is that our GHG emissions are no longer in lock step with GDP, but they are still increasing.   Are there more issues we should be thinking about?

    • Population stabilization? The wonders of medicine have reduced infant mortality, limited the spread of plagues and disease, extended life span (From about 30 in 1850, to 34 in 1900, to 50 in 1950, to about 65 in 2000 and over 70 today!).   About a quarter of Medicare spending is associated with the last year of life! 
    • Maldistribution of wealth? Throughout the world there are elite groups of people who are very wealthy and live very energy-intensive lifestyles – multiple homes, world travel, etc. - and many people who are living in abject poverty, without adequate food, clean water, shelter, and health care.  Both these extremes can isolate their members from full and normal social interactions! Humans are social beings and thrive when they interact with others!  And we learn a lot more when we interact with others who have different backgrounds and lifestyles!
    • Our environmental footprint? A comfortable lifestyle is a common human goal, but we also need healthy food, exercise, and activities that are meaningful.   Take an online footprint quiz and see where you can reduce your adverse impacts without too much trouble!

    Today, I do believe that humanity may outgrow our Planet Earth if we don't change course.  Instead of planning space missions to start over somewhere else in the universe, why don't we find out how humans can survive in harmony with our planet, it's finite resources, and all its inhabitants!

    As Walt Kelly had Pogo tell us: "We have met the enemy and he is us!"

    ----------------------------------------------------------

    Drake bio:  https://marquistopengineers.com/2018/03/22/elisabeth-mertz-drake/

    Hardin, G. 1968.  The Tragedy of the Commons.  Science 162 (5364)1243-1248.

    Kaya, Y. 1991.  Panelist statement in Plenary Session II, Policy Strategies for Managing the Global                              Environment.  Energy and the Environment in the 21st Century,  Ed. J.W. Tester.   Cambridge, MA:          MIT Press.

    Malthus, T.R. 1798.  Essay on the Principle of Population.  Reprint, New York University Press, 1993.

    Meadows, D., D. Meadows, J. Randers, and W. Behrens III.  1972.  The Limits to Growth.  New York: Universe Books.

     



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    Elisabeth Drake PE
    Auburndale MA
    ------------------------------



  • 8.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-20-2019 17:56

    One should stop to think about the predictions of "The Club of Rome" and other doomsdayers such as Paul Ehrlich. Their predictions in the mid-1970s of a billion people starving to death within a decade and England ceasing to exist by 2000 never materialized. Even the data in the table in the post belie neo-Malthusianism. Resources increased to make life better for more people. Anybody who has some familiarity with Malthusian principles should also read Simon's article "Resources, Population, Environment: An Oversupply of False Bad News" in Science (1980).

     

     

    Vivek Utgikar, PhD PE

    Professor, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    Associate Dean of Research, College of Engineering

    University of Idaho

    875 Perimeter Drive, MS 1021

    Moscow, ID 83844-1021

    Phone - (208) 885-6970; Fax (208) 885-7462

    vutgikar@uidaho.edu

    webpages.uidaho.edu/vutgikar

     






  • 9.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    FELLOW
    Posted 08-20-2019 22:27
    Re August 29 post by Vivek Utgikar:

    Cherry picking selected inaccurate predictions of future difficulties does not in any way prove that humanity can continue its risky behavior forever without consequences.  Such an approach is inconsistent with reality. If humanity keeps going the way it has been going there will come a time when the planet will be too hot to sustain human life (the most likely scenario) or the combination of increasing population and decreasing arable land will cause starvation or the minerals upon which humanity depends will be depleted or one or more of these things will cause enough conflict, probably nuclear conflict, to make the planet uninhabitable, assuming that some political or other situation doesn't do the job first. 

    Neil Yeoman, PE, FAIChE





  • 10.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-21-2019 12:38
    Getting back to our knitting, some thoughts on the material and energy balance.  There should be two to begin with:

    1  Pre-industrial 1850;
    2  Present 2020.
     
    Those will be difficult enough.  Once they're done, we can extrapolate / speculate on the third and perhaps most difficult, unknown and contentious, which is coming up fast.  I call it the:  

    3  Post-industrial * circa 2050.

    *   That is, less heavy industrial due to improvements in technology, materials, energy efficiency, food production, lifestyles, etc. 





  • 11.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-21-2019 08:30
    Good essay, and I like the modeling approach.  I studied system dynamics, the field created by Jay Forrester, and worked with his son Nathan, who has worked many years as a consultant in that field; both his children are also adept at modeling and involved.  The goal of dynamic modeling is to learn about interrelationships and feedback loops while constructing the model; the approach is to start with a very simple model, test and then add variables.   Many Club of Rome results were misunderstood as "predictions" rather than as intended: to demonstrate how self-reinforcing loops augment or diminish effects.   These complex models aren't reliable for prediction.  System dynamics as a field of study has two central problems that lead to many of the claims being made against it.  First, it is often misapplied.  Second, people are often misinformed as to its goals, expected outcomes and limitations.  Central to the second point is the endogenous perspective, the encouragement of learning during the process of forming a model, and not the emphasis on 'the' model, and the contingent nature of its application.  The Club of Rome speculated an ultimate limit to growth, but that limit, in reality, is human ingenuity, rather than physical limitations on scarce resources.  For example, 50 years ago when we were donning sweaters during the Middle East oil crisis, who could predict the USA would produce 12 million barrels a day and become a net exporter of crude oil?

    In my understanding, a proper application of this sort of modeling to the climate change issue would be to examine various approaches to "cap and trade", for example, and the rate at which greenhouse gas reduction would proceed under different approaches.   Lead phaseout in the USA proceeded much more quickly than in Europe-the key difference was use of a market-based mechanism in the USA, namely the trading of lead credits, that promoted closure of the most inefficient gasoline production operations first, and the development of alternative blends to boost octane without the need for TEL additive.  Europe followed a less inspired government mandated approach-politics determined the approach and it took an extra couple of decades for Europe to get lead free.  In this case, with GHG being a "global" issue, the cap and trade model would require global participation.   Although this is certainly possible, most politicians expend effort in other directions; using misapplied deterministic predictions to garner votes.  This saddens me, because a market-based approach would be the most rapid way to make progress in reducing the pollutants that accelerate climate change.  We do see reductions in China finally happening since they've embraced a variant of free market capitalism for their economy.  And the USA has significantly driven down pollution with market-based forces driving efficiency.

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    James Buccini
    Chief Financial Officer
    Redding Consultants Inc
    Basking Ridge NJ
    ------------------------------



  • 12.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-22-2019 22:47
    However, maybe some good news, the earth's current rate of population growth has slowed, at least temporarily.  We seem to have hit two inflection points: one turning the rate of growth sharply upward, perhaps logarithmic, and one more recent slowing the growth rate significantly.  This may suggest that the population growth rate is logistic in nature, as some have predicted a flattening of the growth curve.  We await the next inflection point.
    But, this does not mean that socio-political situation will immediately improve.  I suspect that the maldistribution of wealth will always be with us.
    Pogo?  How many of our members will have to google Pogo?





  • 13.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-07-2019 18:45
    William ,

    I think it is an excellent idea. I think we should start by doing a M& B on "well-monitored environments" such as biosphere 2. Has anyone done that and is the data or report available ?  The dynamics of such a model with respect to multiple time scales and scale up would be  of interest.

    Regards

    Ash Khan
    physical modeling group
    RMIT University

    ------------------------------
    Ashfaq Khan
    Research Engineer
    RMIT University, 124 La Trobe Street, Melbourne VIC 3000, 124 La Trobe Street
    Victoria
    ------------------------------



  • 14.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-09-2019 02:37
    it is enough that human activities only must be considered for carbon recycling

    ---------------------------------
    Han Li
    project manager
    Hualu
    Xi'an
    ---------------------------------





  • 15.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-09-2019 14:27
    Consideration of human activities only would greatly simplify the CO2 balance.  However human activities should include farming beef and dairy. 

    Then, we get into the methane balance.  Methane from cattle make up 15% of greenhouse gases.





  • 16.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    FELLOW
    Posted 08-09-2019 19:47
    Re August 9 post by William Stuble:

    Human activity should include all farming, not just beef and dairy, but I suspect that the GHG production from those sources, per se, would be very small compared to energy production.  I would question that 15% of GHGs come from the methane cattle produce.

    Neil Yeoman, PE, FAIChE





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    Neil Yeoman, PE, FAIChE
    Merrick NY
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  • 17.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-10-2019 15:32
    Another human activity that influences the carbon balance is deforestation.

    ------------------------------
    -Kirsten (Virtual Local Section Chair)

    Kirsten Rosselot
    Process Profiles
    Calabasas, CA United States
    ------------------------------



  • 18.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-13-2019 01:13
    The climate change thread was shut down once before, at least as I recall.
    I agree with you about deforestation.  I have already mentioned that, but deforestation is a function of population.  All people, poor or elsewise, want shelter, protective clothing, enough food, clean water to drink, warmth in the winter, and shade in the heat.  More people, static resources equals deforestation, challenges for food, and limited water availability, etc.  
    To quote one well known skeptic, "deniers give skeptics a bad name."






  • 19.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-15-2019 13:44
    Now we're touching on a sensitive subject.  Population control?  The way it has worked in the past is rough and tumble "survival of the fittest".  But we're supposed to be homo sapiens .

    Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man") is the scientific name for the human species. Homo is the human genus, which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid. H. sapiens is the only surviving species of the genus Homo.     -  Wikipedia

    This is completely outside the realm of chemical engineering but yet -- another factor to enter into this highly variable and almost impossible material and energy balance:  changing populations.



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    William Stuble PE
    Design20FIRST
    Cora WY
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  • 20.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-15-2019 17:28
    World population growth rates peaked in the late 1960s and have declined sharply in the past four decades.  https://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/unit/text.php?unit=5&secNum=4


    ------------------------------
    -Kirsten (Virtual Local Section Chair)

    Kirsten Rosselot
    Process Profiles
    Calabasas, CA United States
    ------------------------------



  • 21.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-16-2019 01:13
    Yes, now a bit more than 1% per year according to Google.  Some countries have a negative growth rate and a net negative growth.  I did not intend to diverge into a side thread, but just to point out that raising humans is a process that requires resources.  Making people, to the earth, is not all that different from humans making steel.  Think about it, Homo sapiens.
    It is correct to note that any model of the earth must account for many variables, including a model for people increase.

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    William Hall, P.E.
    St Marys City MD
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  • 22.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    Posted 08-16-2019 08:26
    In support of Kirsten's plot, a book was published last year, Factfulness, in which (among things) the author scours available data sources and concludes that the number of births in the world has essentially plateaued, and​ has been fairly steady since about 2002.  Again, I know this doesn't relate directly to the original subject of this thread, but I think it is important to understand that eternal population growth is not part of the challenge addressing climate change.

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    Matthew Michnovicz
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  • 23.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-17-2019 17:51
    World population has experienced exponential growth since the Industrial Revolution.  I think we cannot discount this growth from the climate change equation.  There is lots of clean up after humans.



    https://www.worldometers.info/world-population/

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    Ronald Shewchuk
    QUALITY
    Air Liquide Americas
    Chester Springs PA
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  • 24.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 27 days ago
    Hi, Ronald. If you plot the rate of change on a logarithmic axis vs time and there is exponential growth, you get a straight line.  Using the data you cite, exponential growth in the world's population has occurred in fits and starts for some segments of time since the industrial revolution, but human population growth has not been exponential since the start of the industrial revolution (the industrial revolution began ~1760).  I plotted the data you cited so you can see what I mean.




    ------------------------------
    -Kirsten (Virtual Local Section Chair)

    Kirsten Rosselot
    Process Profiles
    Calabasas, CA United States
    ------------------------------



  • 25.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    FELLOW
    Posted 08-16-2019 01:01
    Re August 15 post by William Stuble:

    As has been stated by others there isn't much material entering or leaving the planet and the energy balance is totally dominated by the difference between the incoming and outgoing radiation and the effect of GHGs thereon.  An increase in population exacerbates that problem regardless of how well or how poorly the climate change issue is handled.  It also brings its own problems as more and more people compete for finite and dwindling resources.  One way or another chemical engineers will be involved in addressing the problems created. 

    Neil Yeoman, PE, FAIChE





  • 26.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-22-2019 09:25
    I believe Chemical Engineers will be essential to help with the technologies needed to deliver energy and sustain farming and industrial production whilst helping to delay possibly catastrophic climate change that might lead to our species extinction.  WHile I am not arguing in the least that these efforts are in vain, I find it helpful to frame them in a larger perspective.  Robin Hanson hypothesized that the failure to find extraterrestrial civilizations in the observable universe implies the possibility something is wrong with one or more of the arguments from various scientific disciplines which all propose that the appearance of advanced intelligent life is probable.  His hypothesis is conceptualized in terms of a "Great Filter" which acts to reduce the great number of sites where intelligent life might arise to the tiny number of intelligent species with advanced civilizations actually observed (currently just one: human).  This probability threshold, which could lie behind us (in our past) or in front of us (in our future), might work as a barrier to the evolution of intelligent life, or as a high probability of self-destruction. The main counter-intuitive conclusion of this observation is that the easier it was for life to evolve to our stage, the bleaker our future chances for survival.   His original argument, which is an attempt to deal with the Fermis Paradox, is summarized here:  http://mason.gmu.edu/~rhanson/greatfilter.html

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    James Buccini
    Chief Financial Officer
    Redding Consultants Inc
    Basking Ridge NJ
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  • 27.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-16-2019 09:00
    Recall doing a back of the envelope calculation and concluding that deforestation was not as significant as ​other factors (use of fossil fuels).
    My calculation was based on an estimate of 46-58 M.Sq miles of forest lost/year that I saw in a Rain Forest Alliance presentation. No credit for trees planted, average number of trees/sq mile, CO2/tree, etc...

    Geatesh Tampy

    Director, Global Process Engineering
    International Flavors & Fragrances Inc.
    R&D Center
    Union Beach NJ

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    Geatesh Tampy
    Director, R&D
    IFF
    Union Beach NJ
    ------------------------------



  • 28.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 08-22-2019 09:41
    Hi Bill-- the National Weather Service maintains this energy balance.  I don't think I saw a link to it posted elsewhere in the thread and my apologies if this is redundant.  Best, Jim   https://www.weather.gov/jetstream/energy

    ------------------------------
    James Buccini
    Chief Financial Officer
    Redding Consultants Inc
    Basking Ridge NJ
    ------------------------------



  • 29.  RE: Planet Earth Material and Energy Balance

    SENIOR MEMBER
    Posted 30 days ago
    Another factor affecting energy balance will be deforestation and release of carbon deposits in the soil—happening in Siberia, Alaska and BC. The large Amazon fires, human caused, are also a new factor; as trees go the forest gets drier as the trees are a source of the rain; reinforcing future fire risk. https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.express.co.uk/news/science/1169046/Amazon-rainforest-fires-NASA-wildfires-Canada-boreal-forest-fires-carbon-climate-change/amp


    ---------------------------------
    James Buccini
    Chief Financial Officer
    Redding Consultants Inc
    Basking Ridge NJ
    ---------------------------------